During his first years as a senator, Aquino began speaking out against the authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand Marcos ; Marcos in turn saw Aquino as the biggest threat to his power. On September 23,Marcos declared martial law and ordered Aquino and others arrested and imprisoned on trumped up charges of murder and subversion. eescort
Aquino went on a hunger strike to protest the injustice of his military trialbut ended the strike after 40 days. The tribunal lasted several years, all while Aquino was still imprisoned, and on November 25,he was convicted on all charges and sentenced to death.
However, Aquino and others believed that Marcos would not allow him to be executed as Aquino had gained a great deal of support while imprisoned, and such a fate would surely bostom him a martyr for his supporters. In MarchAquino suffered a heart attack in prison.
He was transported to the Philippine Heart Centerwhere he suffered a second heart attack. Doctors determined he needed coronary artery bypass surgery ; however, no surgeon wanted to perform the operation out of fear of controversy, and Aquino refused to undergo the procedure in the Philippines out of fear of sabotage by Marcos, indicating that he would either go to the United States to undergo the procedure or die in his prison cell.
He underwent a coronary bypass surgery in DallasTexas and met with Muslim leaders in DamascusSyriabefore settling with his family in NewtonMassachusetts. Vilipina spent the next three years in self-exile in the U.
Bynews of the political situation in the Philippines led Aquino to return to the country, fully aware of the danger that awaited him. Assassination[ edit ] Prior to his departure from TaipeiAquino gave an interview from his room at the Grand Hotel in which he indicated that he would be wearing a bulletproof vest. He advised the journalists that would be accompanying him on the flight: "You have to be ready with your hand camera because this action can become very fast.
In a matter of three ecsort four minutes it could be all over, and I may not be able to talk to you again after this. The aircraft was retired in when China Airlines began ordering Boeing 's, and delivered to Air New Zealand the same year. In Manila, a contingent of over 1, armed soldiers and police were ased by the government to provide security for Fipipina arrival.
Flight arrived at the Manila International Airport in Gate eight at in the afternoon. The soldiers escorted him off the airplane and onto the jet bridge ; however, instead of following the jet bridge to the terminal, they exited the jet bridge down the service staircase onto the apronwhere a military vehicle was waiting to bring him to prison. It was recorded on the news camera, but the actual shooting of Aquino was not caught on camera due to the exposure to bright sunlight.
The subsequent Sandiganbayan ruling later established that Aquino had died before arriving at Fort Bonifacio General Hospital. Martinez also alleges that only he and Galman knew of the assassination, and that Galman was the actual shooter, a point not corroborated by other evidence in the case. However, there is no solid evidence to substantiate this claim. It was also reported that the manufacturer had shipped the pistol to the Thai National Trading Co.
Funeral[ edit ] Aquino lay in state for nine days, with no effort made to disguise a bullet wound that had disfigured his face. Thousands of supporters flocked to Aquino's wakewhich took place at his house on Times Street in the West Triangle neighbourhood of Quezon City. In a later interview, Aquino's eldest daughter, Ballsy now Aquino-Cruzrecounted that they learnt of the assassination through a phone call from Kyodo News.
More than two million people lined the streets for the procession, which passed by Rizal Parkwhere the Philippine filupina had been brought to half-staff. Church-sponsored Radio Veritas was the only station to broadcast the entire ceremony. Fscort Salongathen head of the Liberal Partysaid about Aquino: Ninoy was getting impatient in Boston, he felt isolated voston the flow of events in the Philippines.
In earlyMarcos was seriously ailing, the Philippine economy was just as rapidly declining, and insurgency was becoming a serious problem. Ninoy thought that by coming home he might be able to persuade Marcos to restore democracy and somehow revitalize filioina Liberal Party. Theories arose as to who was in charge and who ordered the execution.
Some bostpn that Marcos had a long-standing order for Aquino's murder upon the latter's return. Rolando Galman[ edit ] Mere escotr after the shooting, the government declared that Rolando Galman, a communist hitman acting on orders from Philippine Communist Party chairman Rodolfo Salas, was the dscort who killed Aquino. Several members of the security detail in turn fired several shots at Galman, killing him. There were numerous irregularities in this version of events, including the amount of time between Aquino leaving the plane to the sound of gunfire eight secondswhereas this scenario would have taken at least 13 seconds, when reenacted, as well as how an alleged lone gunman could have penetrated a security detail of over 1, people at bosfon airport without assistance.
Politicians and diplomats found evident contradictions between the claim and the photos and videotape footage that documented the time before and after the shooting. Agrava Board[ edit ] Marcos immediately created a fact-finding commission called the Fernando Commission to investigate Aquino's assassination. Four retired Supreme Court justices were appointed; they reed after its composition was challenged in court.
Arturo M. Tolentino declined his appointment as board chairman. However, the commission held only two sittings due to intense public criticism. Salazar, businessman Dante G.
Santos, labor leader Ernesto F. Herrera, and educator Amado C. Dizon as members. Before it could start its work, President Marcos accused the communists of the killing of Senator Aquino: the decision to eliminate the former senator, Marcos claimed, was made by none escrot than the general-secretary of the Philippine Communist Party, Rodolfo Salas.
He was referring to his earlier claim that Aquino had befriended and subsequently betrayed his communist comrades. The Agrava Board conducted public hearings and requested testimonies from several persons who might shed light on the crimes, including Imelda Marcos, and General Fabian VerChief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
In the subsequent proceedings, no one actually identified who fired the gun that killed Aquino, but Rebecca Quijano, another passenger, testified that she saw a man behind Aquino running from the stairs towards Aquino and his escorts point a gun at the back of his head, after which there was a sound of a gunshot. A post-mortem analysis disclosed that Aquino was shot in the back of the head at close range with the bullet exiting at the chin at a downward angle, which supported Quijano's testimony.
More suspicions were aroused when Quijano described the assassin as wearing a military uniform. After a year of thorough investigation—with 20, s of testimony given by witnesses, the Agrava Board submitted two reports to President Marcos—the Majority and Minority Reports. It confirmed that the Aquino assassination was a military conspiracy, but it cleared General Ver. Many believed that President Marcos intimidated and pressured the members of the Board to persuade them not to indict Ver, Marcos's first cousin and most trusted general.
Trials and convictions[ edit ] In25 military personnel including several generals and colonels and one civilian were charged for the murders of Benigno Aquino Jr. Ramosas acting AFP Chief. The accused were tried by the Sandiganbayan special court. After a brief trial, the Sandiganbayan acquitted all of the accused on December 2, The Sandiganbayan ruling and the reinstatement of Ver were denounced as a mockery of justice. After Marcos was ousted inanother investigation was set up by the new government.
The sixteen were Brig. Luther Custodio, Capt. Romeo Bautista, 2nd Lt. Jesus Castro, Sergeants Claro L.
The convicts filed an appeal to have their sentences reduced after 22 years, claiming that the assassination was ordered by Marcos crony and business partner and Corazon Aquino's estranged cousin Eduardo Cojuangco Jr. The Supreme Court ruled that it did not qualify as newly found evidence. This section bostton additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how filipona when to remove this template message Bloodied safari jacketpants foldedbelt, and boots worn by Aquino upon his return from exile are on permanent display at the Aquino Center in Tarlac.
Aquino's death transformed the Philippine opposition from a small isolated movement to a massive unified crusade, incorporating people from all walks of life. The middle class got involved, the impoverished majority participated, and business leaders whom Marcos had irked during martial law endorsed the campaign—all ezcort the crucial support of the military and the Catholic Church hierarchy. The assassination showed the increasing incapacity of the Marcos regime—Ferdinand was mortally ill when the crime occurred while his cronies mismanaged the country in his absence.
It outraged Aquino's supporters that Marcos, if not masterminding it, allowed the assassination to happen and engineered its cover-up. The mass revolt caused by Aquino's demise attracted worldwide media attention and Marcos's American contacts, as well as the Reagan administrationbegan distancing themselves.
There was a global media spotlight on the Philippine crisis, and exposes on Imelda's extravagant lifestyle most infamously, her thousands of pairs of shoes and "mining operations", as well as Ferdinand's excesses, escoft into focus. The assassination thrust Aquino's widow, Corazon, into the public filipin. The official showed a Marcos victory, but this was universally dismissed as fraudulent. While no Filipino president has ever been assassinated, Benigno Aquino is one of three presidential spouses who had been murdered.
The spot where his body lay sprawled is now marked by a brass plaque on the apron. However, by order of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyothe observance of this holiday became moveable—to be celebrated on the "Monday nearest August 21" every year—as part of her controversial 'holiday economics' philosophy as reflected in Republic Act No. Timeline of the murder case[ edit ] August 21, — Benigno Aquino Jr.
August 31, — More than two million people attend Aquino's twelve-hour funeral procession.
October 22, — Marcos creates another fact-finding committee known as the Agrava Fact-Finding Board. October 22, — The Agrava Board releases reports concluding that military officers, which included General Fabian Verconspired to kill Aquino; the Supreme Court ass the case to the Sandiganbayan. December 2, — The Sandiganbayan acquits all of the accused.
September 28, — 16 defendants are convicted by the Fioipina and sentenced to life imprisonment.
July 23, — The Supreme Court affirms the Sandiganbayan conviction. November 21, — General Ver dies of a lung ailment in Bangkok. March 8, — The Supreme Court denies the petition of the accused filed in August to re-open the case. Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita states that the Bureau of Pardons and Parole had recommended a grant of executive clemency. Ermita refuses to give a timeframe for the review. If you are listening, Madame Cory Aquino, forgive me for the sin I committed before.
He was rushed to San Juan de Dios Hospitalwhere he dies during treatment at the age of