It is a thing of wonder and cheers me up every time I return home. Never have so many people been in such urgent need of extended Yuletide joy as they find themselves on house arrest once more.
A quick cycle round the streets in Cambridge shows many locals kinutes on the same : with windows, trees and hedges still ablaze with festive lights. It was only in the 19th century that Britons started festooning Christmas trees and then dismantling all their decorations on Twelfth Night doubtless spurred on by all those dropped needles. Before that, merry-makers took swathes of greenery and berries into their houses and tended to keep them there until Candlemas on Feb 2. This stemmed from the pagan belief you should shelter the tree and hedge spirits from the worst winter storms before taking them outside to ensure regrowth agtractive healthy crops.
They went into the minjtes to analyze the affiliative behavior between couples as they entered and exited two different types of movies. The couple's levels of attraction were studied while watching a high-arousing suspense movie compared to those in a low-arousing movie.
The research indicated that the couples in the high-arousing suspense movie had more afflictive behavior e. The research indicated that by putting couples in a scenario which stimulates their emotional arousal, their affiliative behavior towards each other increase as well. The misattribution of arousal could occur when trying to find out why the affiliative behavior happened. The misattribution could be due to the movie or the fact that the couple was together in the first place.
The couples seemed to be more affectionate towards each other when the adrenaline was produced in the body which was aroused by the suspenseful movie. Meston and Frohlich conducted a study that included a group of couples as they entered and exited a rollercoaster ride at a theme park. The first set of couples were asked to record their heart rate as they doman on a rollercoaster and as they got off while sitting by their ificant other on the ride.
The second minutfs of couples were asked to record their heart rate while entering and exiting but were not to sit next to their ificant other. The first couples had indicated that while qn the rollercoaster ride, they had a heightened attraction to the individual that rode the rollercoaster ride with them. This attraction was visible through the way the couples interacted with each other through their conversations and the amount of physical touch they had with one another. The second couple's levels of attraction were not as heightened as the first couple thus proving that the release of adrenaline produced by the rollercoaster ride heightened the level of attraction that the couples had for one another.
It was found that it is possible to manipulate emotions as well as stimulate emotional arousal between two couples that had already been together before the study was performed.
The intensity of the rollercoaster ride combined with a small amount of fear produced the couple's physical dependence on each other. Assuming the emotional responses of the couple, the male could have felt needed and the attractvie could have felt womsn. Sinclair, Hoffman, Mark, Martin, and Pickering conducted a similar study where they took a group of subjects to test arousal and attraction.
The researchers took two groups: one that had been seated and one that had been exercising.
The groups were then asked to fill out a 20 item measure, qn well as a 10 item arousal measure. The exercised group rated more aroused as well as more positive than the ones that had stayed seated. The minuttes done showed that there are many types of arousal that comes from adrenaline produced in the body and it does not always have to be a romantic type of attraction. There are times when the attraction can also be toward positive things such as beautiful scenery, bright lights, things that catch the eye.
The researchers found that the more aroused a person is the more attracted they are to certain variables. This attraction is done through manipulation of the emotions due to the exercise which the group was unaware of why they had to exercise in the beginning. Dutton and Aron conducted continuing research proving that romantic attraction or sexual arousal is enhanced when the arousal stems from a non-sexual source.
This study deals with the misattribution of arousal and the men who have conducted the studies.
The method consisted of a group of people who watched the Milgrim's obedience paradigm video which contained a 'teacher' and the 'experimenter' to find if it were possible to manipulate both discomfort and arousal. The groups were told that the people in the movie were either role playing or that this was a real life situation. When the group was told that the movie was a role play, they did not have an increased emotional response.
When the group was informed that this was a real life situation, they exhibited much discomfort, squirming, nervous laughter, etc. Therefore, by manipulating the description of the video, they were also manipulating the reaction and sreking of the people. The males reacted with an angry response while the females responded with high levels of anxiety. The conflict arousal womaj was proven to be affective in this study.
Lewandowski and Aron conducted research on interpersonal relationships with strangers in which a group of subjects participate in a variety of games. Before they started, the individuals were asked to fill out the consent forms that briefly asked them to rate their team mate on how 'good looking' they were after briefly meeting before the form was distributed. The couples were ased at random in groups of two and then were asked to participate in a variety of games consisting of high versus low competition as well as high versus low arousal.
The couples were then asked to rate their vor sex partners and the level of attraction for them.
Unlike using pictures or confederates, this study dealt with personal contact and interaction between participants that provides validity to the research. Mezzacappa, Katkin, and Palmer conducted an experiment that correlated with Schachter and Singer's research which has been replicated in a variety of ways and multiple times. This article looks at the effects that epinephrine also known as adrenaline has on emotional arousal.
The participants were divided into two groups which were either given injections of epinephrine or saline. They were then asked to view clips and record their emotional responses. The study showed that participants that had been elicited the epinephrine showed great arousal as well as emotional intensity, especially in the fear and amusement.
The information of their recorded responses showed that certain emotions were affected more by the epinephrine injections which hypothesizes that the use of epinephrine adrenaline does increase an individual's emotional response to certain stimuli. White, Fishbein, and Rutsein conducted research to find that misattribution of arousal facilitates attraction or passionate love. The researchers had men run in place for an allotted amount of time and then asked them to take a 12 item measure of their arousal and mood.
They were placed in one of four experimental conditions: high arousal-attractive confederate, high arousal-unattractive confederate, low arousal-attractive confederate, munutes low arousal-unattractive confederate. After 15 minutes, the men were asked to watch one of two videotapes of a female confederate who attractuve about a variety of topics such as hobbies, family, dating activities, and stating that she had no current boyfriend.
One of the tapes showed the woman made-up to be attractive, while being dressed in tight clothing with make-up, or unattractive with ill-fitting clothing with and no make-up. They were then asked to rate the women on a scale that consisted of items such as sincere, shallow, sexually warm, humorous etc. Furthermore, they were asked to rate the women on how physically attractive she was, how much they would like to date her, how sexy she was, and how much they would like to kiss her.
The indicated that the woman confederate was more liked under high arousal rather than low when ah was made to be attractive. However, she was less liked under high arousal when she was made to be unattractive. The demonstrated the misattribution effect which can be obtained when arousal and confederate attractiveness interact to attracctive liking when the subject was aroused.
Allen, Kenrick, Linder, and McCall in the study done in this article, researchers attempt to explain the arousal-attraction concept without using the misattribution of arousal and negative reinforcement ideas. The two studies use the fear arousal method as well as the focus of attention method. The researchers plan two studies that test response facilitation, which is the performance of a certain act and expectation the subject to react in the same manner, in correlation with misattribution and negative reinforcement.
The reaction can actually for the increase in attraction when the source of arousal is salient unlike misattribution which has no actual evidence. Response facilitation can show increase in attraction when the source of arousal is affectively neutral or positive.
The participants in study one were placed in a room with an attractive confederate where researchers were trying to elicit a high-fear-arousal. The researchers used the sounds of an electric shock high arousal and a type-writer low arousal to elicit emotional stimulation within the participant. The participants were then asked to rate the confederate on an attraction scale.
Findings showed that there was an increased amount of attraction for the confederate in the high arousal situations but these suggest that attraction in aversive environments is not well explained in misattribution terms. The second study was a reproduction of the research done by White, Fishbein, and Rutsein where the researchers had participants run in place for either 15 seconds low arousal or two minutes high arousal which elicited a nonthreatening source of arousal exercise.
They were asked to watch a three minute video consisting of a female student talking about interests, family, favorite dating activities, and that she had no boyfriend. The indicated that the participants that were highly aroused were more attracted to the female confederate than those who were not as aroused. The from both studies indicated that arousal can lead to increased attraction toward a good-looking target person even if the source of the arousal is made highly salient.
Pines conveys information based on the evolutionary theory of romantic attraction which states that men are attracted to physical appearance while women are attracted to status i. Goodwin stated that studies show that men and women put at the top of their lists for desirable traits in a partner: kindness, consideration, honesty, and a sense of humor. The researchers examined the traits most desired in a mate and if there was a gender difference.
According to the evolutionary theory, it was hypothesized that gender differences in romantic attraction will be large and ificant.
Also, men seekin be most attracted to women's appearance and women will be most attracted to men's status. According to the social contract theory, it was hypothesized that individual and cultural differences in romantic attraction will be larger and minuges ificant than the gender differences. An interview was conducted by the researchers where a participant was asked extensive questions about their most ificant romantic relationship.
They were asked simple questions about the relationship i. showed that gender by culture provided support for both theories. Men were attracted to the physical appearance of women but it was the women's personality that most men were most attracted. Status was not as mentioned as much as the researchers hypothesized.
Men were just as attracted to someone who satisfied their needs just as much as women. Half of the participants were told they had a false heart-rate attractie their arousal was ificantly higher than the other people being interviewed. The other participants were told their arousal was only average.
The hypothesis was that arousal in the presence of a favorable interviewer would be labeled as a positive affection monutes the perceived arousal in the presence of an unfavorable interview would be labeled as negative affection.